Clinical Psychology
and Psychotherapy

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy

Internet Use Disorder: Comorbidity

Little is known about the comorbidity of Internet Use Disorder. There are reports of high comorbidity with affective disorders, especially depression, social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder, but most of these studies have several methodological limitations.

In one of the first studies on the psychiatric comorbidity of compulsive computer use, Black et al. evaluated 21 individuals (16 men, 5, women) with self-reported excessive computer use. According to Black, of these 21 subjects 7 (33%) had a lifetime mood disorder, 8 (38%)  a substance use disorder, 4 subjects (19%) had a lifetime anxiety disorder, and 11 subjects (52%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder (cf. Black 1999).

Shapira et al. evaluated 20 individuals with problematic internet use. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) and all subjects had at least one lifetime DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis in addition to their problematic internet use (cf. Shapira 2000).

Kratzer et al. compared 30 individuals with pathological internet use and 31 individuals with intensive but non-pathological internet use. Among the patients with pathological internet use 90% showed symptoms of psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety disorders and mood disorders (cf. Kratzer 2008).

In a larger-scale survey Yen et al. evaluated 2114 Taiwanese students. Adolescents with symptoms of Internet addiction reported more symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility than adolescent without symptoms of Internet addiction (cf. Yen 2007). In the 2-year follow-up depression, social phobia, and hostility were found to predict the occurrence of Internet addiction (cf. Ko 2009).

© Sandra Elze, M.D. & Michael Elze, M.D.
Prien am Chiemsee / Rosenheim, www.Dr-Elze.com
 

 

Further Reading...

 

“Internet Addiction: A Handbook and Guide to Evaluation and Treatment”

by K.S. Young and C. Nabuco de Abreu (Editors)

Kimberley S. Young, the researcher who first brought clinical attention to the issue of problematic Internet use, and Christiano Nabuco de Abreu, director of the Integrated Impulsive Disorders Outpatient Unit at the University of San Paulo, provide with “Internet Addiction - A Handbook and Guide to Evaluation and Treatment” an up to date overview on Internet addiction, the treatment options and strategies for prevention.

This book on Amazon.com >>

 

References

Internet Use Disorder: Comorbidity

Original Research Articles / Klinische Studien

Black DW, Belsare G, Schlosser S (1999). Clinical features, psychiatric comorbidity, and health-related quality of life in persons reporting compulsive computer use behavior. J Clin Psychiatry 60(12): 839-44.
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Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CS, Yeh YC, Yen CF (2009). Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163(10): 937-43.
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Kratzer S, Hegerl U (2008). Is "Internet Addiction" a disorder of its own? A study on subjects with excessive internet use [Article in German]. Psychiatr Prax 35(2): 80-3.
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Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck PE Jr, Khosla UM, McElroy SL (2000). Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. J Affect Disord 57(1-3): 267-72.
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Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Wu HY, Yang MJ (2007). The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. J Adolesc Health 41(1): 93-8.
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Young KS, Rodgers RC (1998). The Relationship Between Depression and Internet Addiction. Cyberpsyhol Behav 1(1): 25-8.
Full text (pdf) >>

Xu J, Shen LX, Yan CH, Hu H, Yang F, Wang L, Kotha SR, Zhang LN, Liao XP, Zhang J, Ouyang FX, Zhang JS, Shen XM (2012). Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China. BMC Public Health 22(12):1106.
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Full text (pdf) >>

Meta-Analysen / Reviews

Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Chen CC (2010). The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry 27(1): 1-8.
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Müller KW, Ammerschläger M, Freisleder FJ, Beutel ME, Wölfling K (2012). Addictive internet use as a comorbid disorder among clients of an adolescent psychiatry - prevalence and psychopathological symptoms [Article in German]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 40(5): 331-7.
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Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M (2010). Internet addiction or excessive Internet use. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 36(5): 277–83.

Internet Use Disorder: Reviews
 

Cash H, Rae CD, Steel AH, Winkler A (2012). Internet Addiction: A Brief Summary of Research and Practice. Curr Psychiatry Rev 8(4): 292–8.
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Full text (pdf) >>

Chakraborty K, Basu D, Vijaya Kumar KG (2010). Internet addiction: consensus, controversies, and the way ahead. East Asian Arch Psychiatry 20(3): 123-32.
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Full text (pdf) >>

Huang XQ, Li MC, Tao R (2010). Treatment of Internet Addiction. Current Psychiatry Reports 12(5): 462-70.
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Petersen KU, Weymann N, Schelb Y, Thiel R, Thomasius R (2009). Pathologischer Internetgebrauch - Epidemiologie, Diagnostik, komorbide Störungen und Behandlungsansätze. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 77(5):263-71.
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Peukert P, Sieslack S, Barth G, Batra A (2010). Internet- and computer game addiction: Phenomenology, comorbidity, etiology, diagnostics and therapeutic implications for the addictives and their relatives. Psychiatr Prax 37(5): 219-24.
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Shaw M, Black DW (2008). Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management. CNS Drugs 22(5): 353-65.
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van Rooij AJ, Zinn MF, Schoenmakers TM, van de Mheen D (2012). Treating Internet Addiction With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists. Int J Ment Health Addiction 10(1): 69-82.
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Winkler A, Dörsing B, Rief W, Shen Y, Glombiewski JA (2013). Treatment of internet addiction: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 33: 317–329.
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Wölfling K, Bühler M, Leménager T, Mörsen C, Mann K (2009). Gambling and internet addiction. Review and research agenda [Article in German]. Nervenarzt 80(9): 1030–9.
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Young KS (1998 a). Caught in the net. How to recognize the signs of internet addiction and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
This book on Amazon.com >>

Young KS (1998 b). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav 1(3): 237–44.
Abstract >>

 


© Sandra Elze, M.D. & Michael Elze, M.D.
Prien am Chiemsee / Rosenheim, www.Dr-Elze.com
 

 




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© Sandra Elze, M.D. & Michael Elze, M.D.
Prien am Chiemsee / Rosenheim, www.Dr-Elze.org
Last updated: 03-24-2016
 

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